Wednesday, January 13, 2021

Valley Forge II (1/13/2021)

Wednesday, January 13, 2021
Returned to Valley Forge National Historical Park to continue our tour. This area was the location of the Winter Encampment of the Continental Army under General George Washington, from 19 December 1777 to 18 June 1778.
Soldiers of New Jersey Monument (1913,
sculpture by John Horrigan)
Redan at Redoubt 2 looking down from a foothill of Mt Misery
A redoubt is an enclosed defensive emplacement outside a larger fort, here outside the inner line defense, and a redan is a defensive emplacement that is open in the rear.
Reconstructed log building at Artillery Park
Iced over puddles on the trail
Artillery Park where most of the six-pound cannons were kept, to be rushed to the point of attack
of unarmed redoubts, thus a flexible defense; fortunately Valley Forge never came under attack (KSS)
Six-pound cannons (KSS)
Marker for Site of General George Washington's
Marquee/campaign tent
Reconstructed soldiers' hut, with mossy roof (KSS)
Site of Huntington's Brigade Encampment
Von Steuben Monument (1915, casting by
Gorham Co, a replica of the original statue by
J Otto Schweizer, erected in 1914 in Utica, NY)
Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben was a Prussian military officer who arrived in Valley Forge and volunteered to assist with drilling the troops. Von Steuben initiated progressive training for troops, new and more efficient steps for handling firearms, and improved camp sanitation. He was commissioned Inspector General, and his daily orders were published in 1779 in a manual used by the army until the War of 1812.
Von Steuben's view towards Huntington's Encampment
Varnum's Quarters/David Stephens House (c 1735)
General James Varnum was born in Massachusetts, but graduated from what is now Brown University in RI. He practiced law, but became interested in military affairs and was a friend of Nathanael Greene. At Valley Forge he had command of the First Regiment of RI/9th Continental Regiment. Varnum also had RI authorize the enlistment of "Negros and Indians" resulting in an integrated regiment.
Varnum's troops were lucky to have their
own picnic area (Not!)
Rectory of Washington Memorial Chapel
Washington Memorial Chapel (1903-1917, by Milton B Medary, Jr)
serves as a national memorial to Washington and
the Continental Army and is also an active Episcopal parish;
also seen is the National Patriots Bell Tower (1941, 1950-1953)
with the 1926 collection of 14 bells of the Washington
Memorial National Carillon - now with 58 bells
The chapel was closed, but the Cloister of the Colonies could be accessed.
Grieving Mother or Sacrifice & Devotion (1914, by
Bela Pratt) is dedicated to the mothers of the nation
One of the plaques dedicated to the men
who served from each of the colonies,
here to those from Pennsylvania
Colonial seals in the cloister floor
Daughters of the American Revolution/DAR
dedication on the National Patriots Bell Tower,
which they financed
At the base of the bell tower appear to be inscribed surnames of 
US generals and presidents, including Eisenhower and Roddy
Statue (2015) of Nathanael Greene, a native of RI,
who served as the Quartermaster at Valley Forge
Waterman Monument (1901) was erected by
the Daughters of the American Revolution/DAR
on the site of the only identified grave at Valley
Forge, belonging to Lieutenant John Waterman
of RI, but is dedicated to all the soldiers
Site of Huntington's Quarters/Maurice Stephens House (c 1812)
General Jedediah Huntington commanded troops from Connecticut.
Patriots of African Descent Monument (1993,
designed by Cal Massey, sculpted by Phil Sumpter)
Replica Redoubt 2 with an abatis/a field fortification consisting
of an obstacle formed of trees laid in a row, with the sharpened
tops directed outwards, towards the enemy
Smaller redoubt to show the trench around the perimeter
and the inner area behind raised earthworks (KSS)
The west side redan of the redoubt in the above photo
Another national park distancing sign
Muhlenberg Brigade Encampment with nine replica huts
In 1777, this area resembled a small city
The replica huts are not authentically constructed,
having used metal lath under stucco (KSS)
What is that mound in the encampment?
The regimental oven (KSS)
The Grand Parade was the location for training drills
State of Maine Memorial (1907) is dedicated
to soldiers who hailed from what became
Maine, but served with the Massachusetts
companies at Valley Forge
National Memorial Arch (1914-1917, by Paul Philippe Cret)
The US Congress would not approve $100,000 for two arches in 1907, but did approve one arch for $100,000 in 1910! The 1996-1997 restoration project of the National Memorial Arch was funded by the Freemasons of Pennsylvania at a cost of $1.5 million.
The National Memorial Arch was part of the
Wreaths Across America program
Pennsylvania Columns(1909-1912, by Henry Bush-Brown)
Anthony Wayne Monument (1908, by Henry Bush-Brown)
Virginia Memorial
Unknown Soldier Monument (1911, by the DAR)
This completes our tour of Valley Forge National Historical Park.